Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB)
explained using Modern Einstein (Gedanken(1)) Laboratory Experiments
January 29, 2012
The current theory of the CMB Source(2) is the heat left over from the Big Bang some 12 to 14 billion(3) years ago. This CMB is currently received by earth from every direction coming from a supposed echo of the Big Bang traveling some 13.7 billion light years to reach us.
It is currently supported by the NASA sensing of the uniform CMB(4) bombarding our Earth spherically, in all directions estimated to be 13.7 billion light year distance from the so called "last scattering(5)" some 350 billion years after the Big Bang.
In layman's terms this CMB is radiation/photons(6) that started in the Big Bang era from a dimensionless point called a singularity(7) and has been radiating in all directions ever since and now is reflected back to us on earth.
These are theories that can be tested with a very simple laboratory set-up. Start with a room that has all surfaces mirrored, turn on a light source, such as a match inside and then extinguish the flame. If the above CMB theory is correct this room should be filled with light for maybe a day, a year, or perhaps a billion years, depending upon the quality of the mirrors. But what happens, as soon as the match is extinguished, so is the light - all gone.
Perhaps our Universe is surrounded with a better reflective surface than any man-made mirrors. If that is true, then all the galaxies should be reflected along with the CMB, such that the sky would be filled with light and we would never see a dark night time. But night comes.
Let's approach this CMB from the appearance of this standard Big Bang model singularity(8), disregarding its emergence from nothing. What one finds is a infinitely dense pin point, suddenly rising to a temperature more than a trillion2 degrees kelvin (9), exploding and creating time(10), space and driving this matter - into brand new space.? If this seems impossible wait till you read what comes next.
On this first CMB day, somehow brand new space was created, can you believe it, a bubble of space 16 billion miles in every direction. [That is how far and fast the photons are rushing away from the epicenter of the Big Bang. - for math lovers: 186,292.4 miles per second, the speed of light, times 86,400 seconds per day = 16,094,799,360 miles per day or 16 billion.] CMB velocity is equal to 0.9999983 or 99.99% of the speed of light.(11)
Space creation didn't stop. This 16 billion mile rush in every direction continued every day - for 13.7 billion years all the way up to yesterday.
Yesterday, the amount of space created to accommodate these out rushing photons enveloping the already super large 13.7 billion light year radius arena of space with another 16 billion mile thick layer staggers the mind with the power needed and yet all this with out even a whimper or power footprint.
Third & Best Explanation
With the every 24 hour advent of dark nights, we need a better theory explaining the source of this CMB. A better choice would be radiation returning from the Big Bang's out-rushing, cooling embers, emitted during the very energetic conversion of Dark Energy into matter into pre-existing, dark energy filled, space that makes up our universe as demonstrated at the Stanford - SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory(12) in '97.
An easy to follow video of the Big Bang Conversion of Dark Energy can be accessed on the web's "You Tube" site titled:
"Dark Energy Atoms to Big Bang how the Universe Started"
and supported by my study of NASA observations also found on "You Tube" titled:
"The Known Universe - including Earth's central location using NASA data."
See also: Physics of the CMB [PDF]
LAST If cold could create space we have several labs(13) that have passed this very low temp of 2.725 kelvin going down to almost absolute zero without any notice of space expanding or labs exploding.
(1) "Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity explained by Gedanken (Thought) Experiments"
"A thought experiment or Gedanken experiment (from German) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences." [Given the structure of the experiment, it may or may not be possible to actually perform it, and, in the case that it is possible for it to be performed, there need be no intention of any kind to actually perform the experiment in question. The common goal of a thought experiment is to explore the potential consequences of the principle in question.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thought_experiment
(2) "The Big Bang theory predicts that the early universe was a very hot place and that as it expands, the gas within it cools. Thus the universe should be filled with radiation that is literally the remnant heat left over from the Big Bang, called the "cosmic microwave background radiation", or CMB." http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html
(3) "The Big Bang Model is a broadly accepted theory for the origin and evolution of our universe. It postulates that 12 to 14 billion years ago, the portion of the universe we can see today was only a few millimeters across." http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_theory.html
(4) "It has since expanded from this hot dense state into the vast and much cooler cosmos (newly created space) we currently inhabit. We can see remnants of this hot dense matter as the now very cold cosmic microwave background radiation which still pervades the universe and is visible to microwave detectors as a uniform glow across the entire sky." http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_theory.html
"Cosmologists studying the cosmic microwave background radiation can look through much of the universe back to when it was opaque: a view back to 380,000 years after the Big Bang. This "wall of light" is called the surface of last scattering since it was the last time most of the CMB photons directly scattered off of matter. When we make maps of the temperature of the CMB, we are mapping this surface of last scattering." http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/bb_tests_cmb.html
(5) last scattering:
"Since the universe was so very hot through most of its early history, there were no atoms in the early universe, only free electrons and nuclei. (Nuclei are made of neutrons and protons). The cosmic microwave background photons easily scatter off of electrons. Thus, photons wandered through the early universe, just as optical light wanders through a dense fog. This process of multiple scattering produces what is called a "thermal" or "blackbody" spectrum of photons. According to the Big Bang theory, the frequency spectrum of the CMB should have this blackbody form. This was indeed measured with tremendous accuracy by the FIRAS experiment on NASA's COBE satellite."
"The CMB radiation was emitted 13.7 billion years ago, only a few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang, long before stars or galaxies ever existed. Thus, by studying the detailed physical properties of the radiation, we can learn about conditions in the universe on very large scales at very early times, since the radiation we see today has traveled over such a large distance."
"The behavior of CMB photons moving through the early universe is analogous to the propagation of optical light through the Earth's atmosphere. Water droplets in a cloud are very effective at scattering light, while optical light moves freely through clear air. Thus, on a cloudy day, we can look through the air out towards the clouds, but can not see through the opaque clouds. Cosmologists studying the cosmic microwave background radiation can look through much of the universe back to when it was opaque: a view back to 380,000 years after the Big Bang. This "wall of light" is called the surface of last scattering since it was the last time most of the CMB photons directly scattered off of matter. When we make maps of the temperature of the CMB, we are mapping this surface of last scattering."
(6) photons: Einstein took the next step by working out that all radiation is quantized. He argued that an oscillating charge can accept or lose energy in small values of DE = hDf. This energy is lost as electromagnetic radiation. Therefore this radiation must be emitted in small packets, each containing DE. He then suggested that each energy of radiation will have its own frequency. Therefore he no longer thought of radiation from an object as continuous. He said it consisted of a series of "packets" of energy. This meant that radiation was being thought of as a "packet of energy" but also as a wave because it had a frequency. These became known as photons. http://www.egglescliffe.org.uk/physics/astronomy/blackbody/bbody.html
"Most scientists now believe that the answer to the first part of the question is that the Universe sprang into existence from a singularity -- a term physicists use to describe regions of space that defy the laws of physics."
"The second part of the question, as to what existed before the Big Bang, has scientists baffled. By definition, nothing existed prior to the beginning, but that fact creates more questions than answers. For instance, if nothing existed prior to the Big Bang, what caused the singularity to be created in the first place?"
"Singularities are zones which defy our current understanding of physics." http://big-bang-theory.com/
(8) Standard Big Bang model:
"In the standard Big Bang model, the universe began at a singularity of infinite density and infinite temperature."
Big Bang model/theory:
"The Big Bang is the dominant (and highly supported) theory of the origin of the universe. In essence, this theory states that the universe began from an initial point or singularity which has expanded over billions of years to form the universe as we now know it." http://physics.about.com/od/astronomy/f/BigBang.htm
(9) Super hot temperature - 1032 degrees Kelvin
[ = 100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 degrees ]
"The Planck time: 10-43 seconds. [Super short - 0.0+42 zeros] After this time gravity can be considered to be a classical background in which particles and fields evolve following quantum mechanics."
"A region about 10-33 cm across is homogeneous and isotropic." [Note: 10-33 is smaller than this dot - ?]
"The temperature is T=1032 degrees Kelvin." (This 1032 degrees Kelvin was the Big Bang's super hot beginning.)
"Contender #1(for) 1032 degrees Kelvin (at beginning)br>
Certain cosmological models, including the one that has held sway for decades, the Standard Model, posit a theoretical highest temperature. It's called the Planck temperature, after the German physicist Max Planck, and it equals about 100 million million million million million degrees, or 1032 Kelvin. "It's ridiculous is what it is," said Columbia physicist Arlin Crotts when I asked him if he could please put that number in perspective for me. "It's a billion billion times the largest temperature that we have to think about" (in gamma-ray bursts and quasars, for instance)."
"In conventional physics-that is, the kind that relies on Einstein's theory of general relativity to describe the very large and quantum mechanics to describe the very small-the Planck temperature was reached 10-43 seconds after the Big Bang got under way. At that instant, known as one Planck time, the entire universe is thought to have been the Planck length, or 10-35 meters. (In physics, Max Planck is the king of the eponymous.) An awfully high temperature in an awfully small space in an awfully short time after
well, after what? That's arguably an even bigger question-how did the universe begin?-and we won't go there."
"(PhysOrg.com) -- In general, asking what happened before the Big Bang is not really considered a science question. According to Big Bang theory, time did not even exist before this point roughly 13.7 billion years ago." http://www.physorg.com/news/2010-11-scientists-glimpse-universe-big.html
(11) "WMAP carried out extensive measurements of the 2.7250 K CMB. WMAP astrophysicists estimate the Big Bang occurred 13.7 billion years ago, which ties in nicely with estimates of oldest known stars in globular clusters. They also estimate that the CMB's redshift is 1089. We can use [the next] equation to estimate the CMB's velocity:
V = (1089+1)2 -1 = 0.9999983
C (1089+1)2 +1
Or, the CMB is receding from us at 0.9999983 the speed of light."
"Astronomical redshifts can have complex mechanisms ranging from the familiar Doppler to the general relativity-based gravitational and cosmological redshifts. In general, the higher z redshifts are due to the cosmological space expansion effect. The most distant galaxy yet detected, in March 2004, has a z of 10. This implies a light travel time of 13.18 billion years."
"From equation (1), wavelengths increase by a factor of z+1. Since photon energy varies as 1/wavelength, redshifted radiation has reduced energy by a factor of z+1. So distant stellar objects are not only faint due to their distance, but their observed light loses energy by a z+1 factor making the task of recording their spectra very difficult."
(12) "Turning matter into light, heat, and other forms of energy is nothing new, as nuclear bombs spectacularly demonstrate. Now a team of physicists at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) has demonstrated the inverse process--what University of Rochester physicist Adrian Melissinos, a spokesperson for the group, calls "the first creation of matter out of light." In the 1 September ('97) Physical Review Letters, the researchers describe how they collided large crowds of photons together so violently that the interactions spawned particles of matter and antimatter: electrons and positrons ([also called] antielectrons)."
(13) (Four Labs) - World record in low temperatures
First - YKI-group
Researchers of the YKI-group of the Low Temperature Laboratory have achieved the lowest temperature ever produced. The record low temperature was reached in a piece of rhodium metal, which was cooled to 100 pK, or 0.000 000 000 1 degrees above the absolute zero.
The present results have been almost 9 years in preparation. Many scientists have contributed to the project, most recently the team was: T.A. Knuuttila, J.T. Tuoriniemi, K.I. Juntunen, and K.K. Nummila from the Low Temperature Laboratory, and two Danish researchers: K. Lefmann (Risψ National Laboratory), and F.B. Rasmussen (University of Copenhagen)." http://ltl.tkk.fi/wiki/LTL/World_record_in_low_temperatures
Second - Bell Labs
Steven Chu, former Bell Labs researcher, wins Nobel in physics "By this ingenious method, Chu and his colleagues managed to cool the sodium atoms to 240 millionths of a degree above absolute zero."
"William Phillips and co-workers at NIST developed a highly efficient magnetic trap that used it to cool atoms down to 40 millionths of a degree above absolute zero in 1988. Claude Cohen-Tannoudji had contributed greatly to the theoretical understanding of cooling experiments. Between 1988 and 1995, he and his group developed a new method, using helium atoms. They managed to cool the helium atoms produced to less than a millionth of a degree over absolute zero." http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/NehemieCange.shtml
Third - MIT
"Wolfgang Ketterle's lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. It currently holds the record-at least according to Guinness World Records 2008-for lowest temperature: 810 trillionths of a degree F above absolute zero.
Ketterle and his colleagues accomplished that feat in 2003 while working with a cloud-about a thousandth of an inch across-of sodium molecules trapped in place by magnets.
Fourth - U of Colorado
"The research, appearing in the September 12 issue of the journal Science, gives scientists at the MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms a chance to study a recently discovered form of matter known as the Bose-Einstein condensate, first seen in 1995 by an MIT team led by Ketterle and another group at the University of Colorado." http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/technologies/biggest_chill.html
By Charles J. Sven
Discoverer of the Center of the Universe
Author: The 21st Century's All New Cosmology